Always Fresh – A Look at William Eggleston’s Photography

This photo story in brief

  • William Eggleston is an American photographer famous for his groundbreaking colour photography
  • It is largely because of Eggleston that colour photography is now accepted as a genuine art form
  • Eggleston’s photographs depict the every day world in all its banality
  • The importance of Eggleston’s photography lies in its power to show us the world that is always fresh

Info box: What is Colour Transparency Film >>

William Eggleston Girls on Sofa

It is perhaps thanks to the American photographer William Eggleston, more than anyone else, that colour photography is viewed as a credible art form today.

Despite not being the first one to have colour photographs exhibited at a major gallery, the popular acceptance of Eggleston’s work nevertheless spelled a sea change in the attitudes towards colour in art photography.

Since Eggleston, colour photography has unequivocally been recognised as being on par with black and white photography. Colour photography has moved from being seen as a channel for garish, mediocre tourist photos to commanding profound artistic value in itself.

In fact, in this post-Eggleston era, even the idea that colour would somehow not be suitable for artistic expression, is an odd one for most photographers.

Southern Childhoold

William Eggleston Airplane Drink

William Eggleston was born in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1939. He was raised in the small town of Sumner, located in the neighbouring state of Mississippi. Little William’s father was an engineer by profession, and his mother a daughter of a prominent local judge. The family was not rich but wealthy enough to send their son into a private boarding school.

The teenaged Eggleston enrolled at Webb School, a private coeducational college-preparatory boarding and day school, located in Bell Buckle, Tennessee. The school had been founded in 1870 and is now the oldest continuously operating boarding school in the southern states of the USA. In its early years, Webb School was know for fostering more Rhodes Scholars than any other secondary school in the whole of United States.

William Eggleston Girl in Car

Aside from Eggleston, Webb School has produced a handful of other famous alumni. Wayne Rogers (1933-2015) played Tapper John in the American television series M*A*S*H. Allen Steele (born in 1958) is a journalist and a Hugo Award-winning science fiction writer. Andrew Glaze (1920-2016) was an award-winning poet, playwright and novelist. The school has also produced a number of state governors and university professors.

The purpose of the school, when Eggleston studied there, was to mould its students into Southern gentlemen. According to this traditional mindset, it was hunting and sports – and not much else – that were considered desirable interests for a young man. Eggleston had been artistically inclined from early childhood. He enjoyed drawing and playing the piano, as well as collecting postcard and picture cut-outs from magazines. For him, the time at Webb School, while not without its pleasant moments, was, if nothing else, confusing.

“I never felt that I didn’t fit in,” Eggleston remembers his time at the school, “But I probably didn’t.” The school had a Spartan routine intended to “build character” and Eggleston describes it as a place “where it was effeminate to like music and painting.”

Abstract Impressionism

William Eggleston Louisiana 1974

Having graduated from Webb School, Eggleston attended Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, for a year. At Vanderbilt, he was gifted a Leica camera by a friend, which either kindled his interest in photography or, more likely, served to cement it.

After Vanderbilt, Eggleston spent a semester at Delta State College in Cleveland, Mississippi, and moved from there to study at the University of Mississippi. He studied five years at the Ole Miss but without acquiring a university degree. The time at the university would be important for his future career as a photographer, however.

As part of his arts studies, Eggleston learned about abstract impressionism from the painter Tom Young. Some of the aesthetics from this post-World War II art movement can be seen in Eggleston’s later works, notably in his depiction of large patches of colour.

William Eggleston Graceland

Abstract expressionism was the first truly American art movement. It developed on the basis of surrealism which had bloomed in Europe at the beginning of the 1920s. As in surrealism, spontaneous, even subconscious creation was of the essence in abstract expressionism. It was also influenced by the thinking of Wolfgang Paalen (1905-1959), an Austrian surrealist artist who pondered in his writings the intricacies of quantum physics and reflected on “totemic vision and the spatial structure of native-Indian painting from British Columbia.”

Some of the more prominent members of the abstract expressionist movement included Jackson Pollock (1912-1956), the Dutch artist Willem de Kooning (1904-1997) and Robert de Niro Sr. (1922-1993). He was the father of actor Robert de Niro whose directorial debut, “A Bronx Tale”, from 1993, was dedicated to him.

From Black and White to Colour

William Eggleston Supermarket Boy with Carts

William Eggleston’s early inspiration as a photographer was the work of Rober Frank (born in 1924) and Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908-2004). Frank is a Swiss-American photographer and documentary film maker best known for documenting American society in his seminal photography book, The Americans (published in France in 1958 and in America the following year with an introduction by Jack Kerouac.)

Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French humanist photographer and cofounder of the international photographic cooperative Magnum. He popularised the term ‘decisive moment’ which – besides being the name of a book, published in 1952 – stood for successful capturing of a fleeting moment into a meaningful photograph.

In the tradition of Frank and Cartier-Bresson, Eggleston’s photographs were in black and white until the mid-1960s when he was introduced to colour photography by the American photographer, painter and sculptor William Christenberry (1936-2016).

William Eggleston Huntsville, Alabama

According to Eggleston, switching on to colour photography was a natural progression for him. “I had wanted to see a lot of things in colour because the world is in colour,” he says in an interview with film director Michael Almereyda in 2008. “I was affected by it all the time, particularly certain times of the day when suddenly things really starkly stand out.”

Since the late 60s, a large part of Eggleston’s work has been shot on colour transparency film. While teaching at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during 1973 and 1974, Eggleston discovered dye-transfer printing which significantly impacted the look of his photos.

Dye-transfer printing is a work-intensive method of transferring images on photographic paper. It utilises similar printing plates as traditional magazine printing. There are four separate print plates for each of the primary colours (magenta, yellow and cyan) as well as for black. The images resulting from the printing process are highly saturated and have a richness and depth of tones unmatched by any other method.

Currently, there are only about a dozen artisans in the world using dye-transfer printing. The Pan Matrix and the Matrix film needed for the printing process were discontinued by Kodak in 1991 and 1994, respectively. The work continues, for the time being, with materials hoarded by enthusiasts at great expense at the closure of film production.

Famous Photographs by William Eggleston

The Red Ceiling

William Eggleston The Red Ceiling

Some of Eggleston’s most famous photographs are produced utilising dye-transfer printing. One of these images is the striking “The Red Ceiling” from 1973. According to Eggleston, “‘The Red Ceiling’ is so powerful, that in fact I’ve never seen it reproduced on the page to my satisfaction. When you look at the dye it is like red blood that’s wet on the wall.”

The photograph depicts a detail of a room with red ceiling and wall. From the ceiling hangs a purple light bulb. Three electric chords approach the light fixture from three different directions in a threatening or supporting manner, depending on your viewpoint. On the wall, there is a garish triptyc of photographs showing unclear human figures.

The Red Ceiling is also known as Greenwood, Mississippi, 1973, and it is probably the most famous of Eggleston’s photographs. There is a dye-transfer print of the photograph measuring 35.2 cm x 55.1 cm (13.9 in x 21.7 in) kept at both J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

The Tricycle

William Eggleston Tricycle

The tricycle is a simple photograph of a children’s tricycle photographed from a low angle in a suburban setting. The photo was taken in Memphis in 1969 and a print of it sold for $578,500 in 2012.

Whether the photograph is worth the exorbitant price is a matter of opinion. The high-end art world, inhabited by rich collectors, does not deal in real but perceived value. For collectors and galleries, art is a currency which declines or increases in worth based on speculation and manipulation.

The photograph may, however, be seen as a turning point in general artistic perception. It is a somewhat iconic-looking representation of an everyday item and, with it, of a way of life which fact, paradoxically, raises it above the mundane.

Eggleston describes the experience of taking the photograph to Almereyda: “I was searching around a pretty barren suburban neighbourhood in Memphis for no particular reason, in a place I’m not familiar with. This [thing] was just sitting in the street near the curb and I was sitting on the curb looking at it. I [put] the camera on the curb, using something like my wallet to cushion it.”

The reason the tricycle was photographed from such a low angle was that “it was not so interesting to stand at normal standing height and look down at this thing so I got down level with it.”

Untitled 1969-1970

William Eggleston Untitled 1969-1970

Untitled 1969-1970 is a portrait of Eggleston’s uncle, Adyn Schuyler Sr. and Jasper Staples, one of the servants who – according to Eggleston’s testimony – raised him. The photograph was taken at a funeral at Cassidy Bayou in Sumner, Mississippi.

The photo was produced using dye-transfer printing. It is an interesting study of matching postures and a shared interest: whatever it is that is happening off-camera is occupying the attention of both men.

There is a cinematic element to the photo and it could easily be a screen capture from a police drama, for instance.

William Eggleston’s Aesthetics

William Eggleston Diner

William Eggleston’s subject matter is the everyday world. The mundane environment of the suburban southern United States is shown in endless, banal detail.

He photographs “old tyres, Dr Pepper Machines, discarded air conditioners, vending machines, empty and dirty Coca-Cola bottles, torn posters, power poles and power wires, street barricades, one-way signs, detour signs, No Parking signs, parking meters and palm trees,” writes Eudora Welty in her introduction to The Democratic Forest, a book of photographs published by Eggleston in 1989.

In Welty’s estimation, Eggleston shows us the “grain of the present, like the cross-section of the tree.” According to her, Eggleston’s “extraordinary, compelling honest beautiful and unsparing photographs all have to do with the quality of our lives in the ongoing world.”

Eggleston’s photography has an uncanny resemblance to the photo realistic and hyper realistic painting of such artists as Richard Estes (born in 1932), Ralph Goings (1928-2016) and Robert Bechler (born in 1932).

This quality is especially apparent in photographs depicting condiment trays with bright red ketchup bottles and salt and pepper shakers, girls lounging on a sofa or queuing up at a hamburger kiosk, motel rooms with vintage tv-sets or more or less startled pedestrians walking on the street.

The Power of Eggleston’s Photography

William Eggleston Untitled 1971-1973

One of the first curators to buy Eggleston’s photography was John Szarkowski (1925-2007), director of photography at MoMa from 1962 to 1991. He purchased a photograph for the museum’s collections in 1969. A private exhibition of Eggleston’s photography was shown at MoMa in 1976.

The exhibition in 1976 is generally seen as a watershed moment in terms of the “acceptance of colour photography by the highest validating institution,” as described by editor Mark Holborn.

It was not the first solo exhibition of colour photography at MoMa, however. Eliot Porter (1901-1990), known for his colour photographs of nature, had an exhibition of colour photographs at the museum already in the 1940s. A decade later, MoMa exhibited the colour photography of Ernst Haas (1921-1986), an Austrian photojournalist and colour photographer.

Perhaps the importance of Eggleston’s photography lies in its energy. Seeing Eggleston’s photographs for the first time left Walter Hopps (1932-2005), a curator at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington D.C. “stunned.” According to him, he had never seen “anything like” them.

Now, more than forty years later, Eggleston’s photography is no less stunning. Clearly, then, its power lies not only in novelty – unless by new we mean something that is always fresh.


List of Photography Books Published by William Eggleston

(Please note: the following list of Eggleston’s publications is not complete by any means. The publication year denotes the first printing.)

      Los Alamos, 1974

        Election Eve, 1977

          Morals of Vision, 1978

            Flowers, 1978

              Wedgwood Blue, 1979

                Seven, 1979

                  Troubled Waters, 1980

                    The Louisiana Project, 1980

                      Graceland, 1984

                        Aperture Ninety-Six, 1984

                          The Democratic Forest, 1989

                            Faulkner’s Mississippi, 1990

                              Ancient and Modern, 1992

                                Horses and Dogs, 1994

                                  The Hasselblad Award 1998: William Eggleston, 1999

                                    2 ¼, 1999

                                      William Eggleston, 2001

                                        William Eggleston’s Guide, 2002

                                          Black and White Pictures, 2005

                                            The Spirit of Dunkerque, 2006

                                              William Eggleston: Democratic Camera, Photographs and Video, 1961-2008, 2008

                                                Stranded in Canton, 2008

                                                  5 x 7, 2009

                                                    Paris, 2009

                                                      Before Color, 2010

                                                        For Now, 2010

                                                          Chromes, 2011

                                                            Los Alamos Revisited. 2012

                                                              At Zenith, 2013

                                                                From Black & White to Color, 2014

                                                                  At Zenith, 2014

                                                                  List of Photography Awards Granted to William Eggleston

                                                                      Photographer’s Fellowship, National Endowment for the Arts, 1975

                                                                        National Endowment for the Arts, 1978

                                                                          Photographic Society of Japan, 1989

                                                                            Distinguished Achievement Award, University of Memphis, 1996

                                                                              Hasselblad Award, Hasselblad Foundation, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998

                                                                                Special 150th Anniversary Medal and Honorary Fellowship (HonFRPS), Royal Photographic Society, London, 2003

                                                                                  Getty Images Lifetime Achievement Award at the International Center of Photography (ICP) Infinity Awards, 2004

                                                                                    Outstanding Contribution to Photography Award, Sony World Photography Awards, World Photography Organisation, London, 2013

                                                                                    What is colour transparency film

                                                                                    Colour transparency film is also known as:

                                                                                        Slide Film

                                                                                          Chrome Film

                                                                                            Chromogenic Film

                                                                                            Transparency film works by producing a positive image on a transparent plastic base, whereas with negative film the light is captured on a strip of film in a reversed order: on a film negative, lighter areas of the image appear darker and the darker ones lighter.

                                                                                            With colour negatives, the colours, too, are reversed to their complementary colours, in addition to the lightness reversal. In order to see the picture in its intended state, the negative film will have to be projected onto light sensitive photo paper via a photographic enlarger, which absorbs the image and returns the colours and the lightness values to normal.

                                                                                            By recording the colours as they appear in real life, colour transparency film makes do without the additional step of having to print the images on photo paper. Instead, the photos are projected onto a screen with a slide projector.

                                                                                            For photography, slide film is less forgiving than negative film. In digital terms, a negative is like a raw file which gives you a lot of leeway in post production.

                                                                                            Chrome film, on the other hand, is pretty much like a JPG. There’s only so much you can do in the dark room. In fact, it’s best to nail the shot in camera as – along with limited post processing options – slide film comes with a much more limited dynamic range than the negative film.

                                                                                            Slide Film Formats

                                                                                            Slide film is attached to a plastic, or sometimes cardboard, frame measuring 2×2 inch, or 50.8mm x 50.8mm.

                                                                                            The size of the film varies, however. This means that the area within the frame, occupied by the film, varies as well. The larger the transparency the thinner the frame will be.

                                                                                            Transparency film comes in the following formats:

                                                                                            The 35mm slides, measuring 24mm x 36mm (0.9 inch x 1.4 inch) are the most common ones.

                                                                                            The 110 slide is the smallest transparency film size. Its dimensions are 13mm x 17mm (0.51 inch x 0.66 inch) and its production started in 1972.

                                                                                            The 127 Superslide is the largest chrome film size at nearly 2×2 inch (50.8mm), which leaves only very little space for the frame. It was mainly used in postcard slides sold to tourists, less often in personal photography.

                                                                                            The 127 Slide is the next in line with the film size of 40mm x 40mm (1.57 inch x 1.57 inch). This slide type was produced by Kodak from 1912 until 1995.

                                                                                            The dimensions of the 126 Slide are 28mm x 28mm (1.1 inch x 1.1 inch) and it was produced by Kodak from 1963 onwards.

                                                                                            Lastly, the 35mm Half Frame Slide measures 18mm x 24mm (0.7 inch x 0.9 inch). It is half the size of the normal 35mm slide.

                                                                                            Benefits and Drawbacks of Slide Film

                                                                                            Slides are ideal for social gatherings because they’re easier to showcase for a large audience. On the flip side, the photographer is dependant on bulky equipment and a suitable space for sharing and enjoying his imagery.

                                                                                            In the digital photography era, these considerations are obsolete for most people. But, when film was the only way to record images, photographers had to choose between having the convenience of the negative film or the superior quality of the transparency film.

                                                                                            In many cases, the slide film was used by commercial and professional photographers in projects where colour accuracy and the clarity of the image was of the utmost importance, for instance when photographing fashion catalogues or when copying art.

                                                                                            List of Colour Transparency Films that You Can Still Buy

                                                                                            Fujifilm Provia 100F (Produces rich colours and is often used for portraiture)

                                                                                            Fujifilm Velvia 100 (High colour saturation, very well suited for nature and landscape photography)

                                                                                            Fujifilm Velvia 50 (Excellent for landscape photography)

                                                                                            Lomography X Pro 200 Slide Film (Often cross processed but can be processed normally, too)

                                                                                            Lomography Peacock Color Slide Film – Color Slide 110 Film (Another cross-process film)

                                                                                            AgfaPhoto CT Precisa 100 Color Transparency Film

                                                                                            Kodak Ektachrome E100 (Rereleased by Kodak in 2017, very good for portrait photography)

                                                                                            What is E6 Slide Film

                                                                                            The E-6 Process is a chromogenic photographic process for developing slide film. Unlike other developing processes, it allows processing of slides on the equipment used for developing black and white negative films or C-41 colour films.

                                                                                            The new E-6 process replaced Kodak’s E-3 and E-4 processes which both had serious disadvantages. The transparencies produced with the E-3 process faded easily. The E-4 process relied on the use of polluting chemicals.

                                                                                            There are two variations of the E-6 process, with the commercial laboratories utilising six different chemical baths and the hobbyist version only using three baths.

                                                                                            SOURCES:

                                                                                            William Eggleston: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Eggleston

                                                                                            Exhibition: ‘William Eggleston Portraits’ at The National Portrait Gallery, London: https://artblart.com/tag/william-eggleston-peaches/

                                                                                            Abstract expressionism: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_expressionism

                                                                                            The Phoblographer Explains: Chrome Film vs Negative Film: https://www.thephoblographer.com/2015/09/07/the-phoblographer-explains-chrome-film-vs-negative-film/

                                                                                            5 Beautiful Slide Film Emulsions You Can Still Get Your Hands On: https://www.thephoblographer.com/2017/02/02/beautiful-slide-film-emulsions-can-still-get-hands/

                                                                                            Kodak Brings Back Ektachrome Slide Film for Photographers and Filmmakers: https://fstoppers.com/film/kodak-brings-back-ektachrome-slide-film-photographers-and-filmmakers-160222

                                                                                            Where to Buy / Develop Film in Australia: https://www.lofico.com.au/blogs/news/7361772-where-to-buy-develop-film-in-australia

                                                                                            Slides / Transparencies: http://www.digitalcopycat.com/slide_negative_identification.html

                                                                                            Dye Transfer: the Ultimate Color Print: http://ctein.com/dyetrans.htm

                                                                                            How to Photograph Harlem Like Jack Garofalo and Gordon Parks

                                                                                            This photo story in brief

                                                                                            • Harlem is a predominantly black neighbourhood in Manhattan, New York, with a vibrant cultural history
                                                                                            • Jack Garofalo created his colourful photo essay on Harlem in 1970
                                                                                            • Gordon Parks took his black and white photos of Harlem streets in 1943
                                                                                            • Documentary photography is important because it allows us to see how other people live their lives

                                                                                            Info box: How to create document photography like Jack Garofalo and Gordon Parks >>

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Harlem in New York City was a vibrant and colourful neighbourhood in the 1970s. It was also an area plagued by poverty and crime, and many inhabitants were on their way out to other parts of the city in search of better economic future.

                                                                                            It was at this time of cultural change that the French photographer Jack Garofalo (1923-2004) arrived in town to document the scene. He was a staff photographer for Paris Match magazine and had, during his career, photographed celebrities and rock stars from Alain Delon and Bianca Jagger to Sharon Tate and Jack Nicholson.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo was known for his striking black and white portraits and photos of life in cities such as Venice, Nice and Paris. Working for the largest celebrity magazine in France meant that the subjects of his photos were often famous people, whether he was shooting on city streets, beaches or night clubs.

                                                                                            Colourful life in Harlem photographed by Jack Garofalo

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            This assignment to Harlem was about everyday people, however. Garofalo would visit people in their homes and photograph families – parents with their children – spending time together in their living rooms. He shot young dudes with afro haircuts browsing books in a bookshop and older women in their casual home dresses chatting with each other on a park bench. Or he would follow a woman with the looks of a model into a hair salon to document her trialling out wigs – popular fashion accessories in the 70s, along with hot pants and bell-bottomed trousers.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            The fashion in Harlem – in July 1970 when Jack Garofalo was photographing his historically important photo documentary for the October issue of Paris Match – was all about colour and an innate sense of style. Men wore mustard yellow sweaters with loose black slacks or tight-fitting blue trousers, and blue and white, striped shirts. Women donned purple jeans and bright yellow tops. Their babies were dressed in all-white costumes with frilly hems. Teenagers might wear black and white gangster shoes and a three-piece suit with a pink tie walking the streets of their impoverished neighbourhood: people might have been poor but they certainly knew how to dress.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            The Harlem history and cultural life

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Harlem is a large, predominantly black area in New York known for its energetic culture. During the 1920s and 1930s it was the centre of Harlem Renaissance which produced musicians and writers as well as actors and theatre companies such as the New Heritage Repertory Theater, National Black Theater, Lafayette Players, Harlem Suitcase Theater, The Negro Playwrights, American Negro Theater, and the Rose McClendon Players.

                                                                                            Harlem Renaissance brought Hollywood to the area with Orson Welles producing the Black Macbeth at the Lafayette theatre in 1936. The Harlem Boys Choir operated in the neighbourhood from 1965 to 2007 organising concert tours and musical education for mainly black boys in the choir.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            The Dance Theatre of Harlem – founded in the 1960s by Arthur Mitchell, a former New York City ballet dancer – has been teaching classical ballet and theatre to generations of Harlem youth. More recently, Harlem has been home to such hip hop artists as Big L, Kurtis Blow and Immortal Technique. Hip hop dances originating in Harlem include Harlem shake, toe wop, and Chicken Noodle Soup.

                                                                                            Harlem is home to the Harlem Writers Guild, the oldest African-American writers organisation, founded in 1950 by writers John Oliver Killens (1916-1987), Rosa Guy (1922-2012), John Henrik Clarke (1915-1998), Willard Moore and Walter Christmas.

                                                                                            Harlem has also been associated, at some stage of their literary careers, with such American writers as James Baldwin (1924-1987), Wallace Thurman (1902-1934), Claude McKay (1889-1948) and Langston Hughes (1902-1967). The poem, Montage of a Dream Deferred, by Hughes from 1951 describes the people living in Harlem. Its famous first stanzas talk about the seething frustrations caused by unfulfilled aspirations:

                                                                                            What happens to a dream deferred?

                                                                                            Does it dry up
                                                                                            like a raisin in the sun?
                                                                                            Or fester like a sore—
                                                                                            And then run?
                                                                                            Does it stink like rotten meat?
                                                                                            Or crust and sugar over—
                                                                                            like a syrupy sweet?

                                                                                            Maybe it just sags
                                                                                            like a heavy load.

                                                                                            Or does it explode?

                                                                                            Harlem then and now

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Harlem is located in the northern part of Manhattan island, between the 125th street and the 165th street. It was founded in 1658 by the Dutch immigrants into America and was named after the city of Haarlem in Holland.

                                                                                            According to Wikipedia, the name Harlem stands for a “residence located on a high sandy soil in the forest.” In recent times, Harlem has gained some popularity as a baby boy name. It appears in the statistics first in 2005, and held the 1714th position in the most popular baby name ranking in America in 2012.

                                                                                            The neighbourhood of Harlem in New York has traditionally been inhabited by poor people. The major ethnic groups represented after the American Civil War were the Jews and the Italians. The 20th century saw an influx of black population as part of the Great Migration, in which six million African Americans moved from the southern states into the Northeast, Midwest and West between 1916 and 1970.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            The total area of Harlem is 10.03 km2 (3.871 sq mi) and it had a population of just over 374,000 in 2006. The percentage of black population in the same year was 40.54. In 1970, when Jack Garofalo took his beautiful photos of the Harlem inhabitants, the total population of the area was 430,567 out of which blacks made up 63.53 percent. Since then the the numbers of whites, Hispanics and Italians have risen, especially in the areas surrounding Central Harlem.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo: Harlem 1970

                                                                                            Some of the main social problems in Harlem are still unemployment and poverty, although it has areas with higher employment and standard of living, such as Morningside Heights in the western part of Harlem with a sizable white population and numerous educational institutions.

                                                                                            Gentrification looms on the rest of Harlem as well. According to the New York Times, many gas stations at prime locations have been demolished, with high-end condos and even a university campus being built in their place. Median home values are still clearly lower than those in the Upper Manhattan, however, with a corresponding unemployment rate of 21 percent.

                                                                                            Harlem as seen by Gordon Parks in 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Before Jack Garofalo, the neighbourhood of Harlem and its citizens were photographed by the famous African American photographer Gordon Parks (1912-2006) in the 1940s. Parks was working for the Office of War Information and produced an essay of photos that are very different in mood to those of the colourful, boisterous pictures taken by Garofalo in 1970. His black and white photos capture perfectly the somber atmosphere of war time America with empty streets, serious-looking children and war propaganda posters.

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks went on to move into the area and to produce another photo essay on the life of Harlem, this time from the point of view of Red Jackson, a 17-year old gang leader. The story was published by Life magazine in its November 1, 1948 issue under the title “Harlem Gang Leader”.

                                                                                            Parks – who was born in Kansas and raised in Minnesota – was influenced in his photography by photographers such as Dorothea Lange and Russell Lee who documented American rural life for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) during the depression-era and beyond. These early documentarists inspired Parks as a photographer because they “put him in touch with the reality of the time”, as he testifies in an interview recorded in 1964.

                                                                                            Why documentary photography is important

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            The reality of fact-based photography is often confronting, and by forcing us to see how others – people that we would never otherwise meet – are living their lives it has a chance to influence our own lives and the attitudes of the society at large.

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            The importance of documentary photography lies in the fact that it records people and emotions in their natural environment at a particular, unrepeatable moment in history. It is arguably a more accurate reflection of human existence than the moving pictures can ever hope to be. Unlike video, photography allows us to study the physical reality in an unknown place, and to scrutinise expressions and gestures of people frozen in time.

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            Whatever we are seeing has already ceased to exist but keeps on influencing our lives. Great documentary photography creates connections spanning geographical, temporary and temperamental differences.

                                                                                            Many realities

                                                                                            Gordon Parks: Harlem 1943

                                                                                            The colourful photographs of Harlem taken by Jack Garofalo in the 1970s reflect a fashion-oriented group of people but also show a more serene, domestic reality.

                                                                                            Gordon Parks’ photography reveals a thoughtful atmosphere rendered heavy by poverty and war, as well as a more serious attitude to life that some of the people in Garofalo’s images already seem to be lacking.

                                                                                            What these photo essays ultimately show us is that life in Harlem was beautiful and hard both in the 1940s and the 1970s.

                                                                                            In that sense they can be said to represent all places and all times.

                                                                                            How to create documentary photography like Jack Garofalo and Gordon Parks

                                                                                            Both Parks’ as well as Garofalo’s photos are a beautiful testimony to an area and a community of people. They are also shining examples of documentary and street photography at its best. Although different on the surface, they nevertheless bring out some important points that all aspiring photo essayists should learn from.

                                                                                            Firstly, both Garofalo and Parks made it a point to get to know the people they were photographing. Parks moved into Harlem and Garofalo lived in the area for six weeks.

                                                                                            Regardless who your subjects are, your photos are always going to benefit from familiarity and intimacy. It takes time for people to get comfortable with new situations and new acquaintances. In an ideal situation, the photographer will have become so familiar to his subjects that his presence is forgotten. Gaining people’s trust will also gain you access to places and situations you wouldn’t otherwise be able to photograph.

                                                                                            Secondly, you need to research your topic to represent it more fully. While spontaneity and adaptability are crucial in documenting the life of any community it is also important to prepare yourself by learning about the history, social structure and demographics of the area that you’re interested in.

                                                                                            By doing your homework you’re ensuring that you’ll be able to cover as many aspects of the community as possible. Conversely, you will also gain enough knowledge on the life of the people to enable you to make a decision to concentrate on one particular feature or a person in the area – just as Gordon Parks did when he decided to build his second photo documentary on Harlem around one person, Red Jackson.

                                                                                            Thirdly, you need to have experience from many different fields of photography in order to become a successful documentary photographer. Nobody is ever ready as a photographer but the more you shoot the more you’re able to respond to changing situations – and to anticipate them – both socially and artistically.

                                                                                            Before photographing the people of Harlem, the young Gordon Parks already had a history in portraiture and social issues photography. Parks would later move on to photograph fashion for Vogue magazine developing his trademark style of shooting his models in movement rather than standing still.

                                                                                            Jack Garofalo, for his part, was a veteran fashion photographer by the time he created his photo essay on Harlem, having photographed celebrities throughout the 1950s and the 1960s.

                                                                                            True photography is a life-long pursuit which encompasses all aspects of human existence. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for creating great imagery but it is only a starting point.